The S10 Framework is layered on top of standard SAP system functionality. The required components are usually already active and configured. This also means that SAP standard tools can also be used for administration, monitoring and error analysis. The SAP transactions and their significance for an S10 application are therefore briefly explained below. Details can then be found in the corresponding SAP documentation.
/S10/UTIL - Generation of S10 applications
This transaction is the central entry point to create S10 applications. You can specify SAP tables and select fields here and then get a directly executable mobile application, which can then be extended and expanded. For details, see the chapter "Generating application parts"
SE11 - ABAP Dictionary
The ABAP Dictionary is the central administration of all data definitions used in the SAP system. The various data types (data elements, structures and tables, views, etc.) are defined and managed here, and are then available for use in ABAP programs or in interfaces.

When developing S10 applications, it can be helpful to display the corresponding data element for a field in the Dictionary. To do this, press the F1 key in the corresponding field on the SAP screen and select "Technical info". With a double click on data element you can call the corresponding entry in the dictionary.

In an S/4HANA system, CDS views can also be displayed in SE11. In addition to SAP tables, you can also specify and use these for generating application parts in transaction /s10/util. Note, however, that the creation and modification of CDS views is not possible in the SAP GUI, but only via external tools such as Eclipse. Due to the HANA database, S10 applications also benefit from the high performance when using CDS views.

A list of CDS views delivered by SAP in the standard system as well as their description can be found clearly presented under here: released CDS views
SE16 und SE16N - Data Browser or General Table Display
The Data Browser is a transaction that can be used to display data in database tables. You can search for individual values or records per table field.
The advantage of the newer variant SE16N is that field names as well as their short description are displayed at the same time. In addition, a corresponding text table is determined automatically, if available.

The S10 framework is also able to automatically determine labels for field values from the corresponding text tables. Therefore, these do not have to be included separately as fields. Details can be found in chapter "Data binding"
SE24 - ABAP Class Builder
The Class Builder is a tool in the ABAP Workbench that allows you to create, define, modify, and test global ABAP classes and interfaces.

When developing application parts with the S10 framework, all used classes should inherit from /s10/any to be able to use the S10 functions. Own classes can then be local or global classes, especially in case of multiple use in applications global classes are suitable.

Here you can find the reference to the S10 class methods.
SE37 - ABAP function modules
The SAP system uses function modules at numerous points for the proper functioning of the SAP system. A function module encapsulates the ABAP code and thus enables reuse at various points.

In your own S10 application it is therefore recommended to use existing function modules for reading data - if possible and available - instead of reading SAP data tables directly. For the transfer of data, function modules are generally recommended.
BAPI - BAPI Explorer
Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI) is a standardized programming interface of SAP business objects. BAPIs enable external programs to access SAP ERP data and business processes. In the BAPI Explorer, application developers can get an overview of the stock of existing BAPIs in the BOR.

S10 applications should use existing BAPIs when reading and writing data, if possible, in order to map standard functionality. Unfortunately, many of the existing interfaces are no longer being further developed and maintained by SAP, so that newer fields are often not mapped. In this case, it is then necessary to fall back on direct reading of the corresponding data tables, for example.
BDBS - Generate mappings code
SAP has built the Business API (BAPI) to connect external systems. For this reason, all variables are named in a meaningful way and do not follow the internal names. However, SAP offers a tool for the generation of mappings for BAPI structures.

You can generate S10 applications directly by specifying SAP tables. This means that the S10 framework takes the selected fields of the SAP table as fields in the S10 class and works with them. This also allows functions like s10databaseread() and s10databaseselect() to read data from the table and synchronize it directly with the display on the frontend (HTML).

However, when writing data using BAPIs, the names for the fields of the table and the input parameters usually do not match. Therefore, you can use transaction BDBS to automatically create a help structure for converting the fields.
SHDB - Transaction recorder (Batch Input)
SAP Batch Input enables the quick and easy transfer of data into an SAP system. The transaction flow is simulated and the data is transferred as if it had been entered online.

The special feature here is that no SAP GUI has to be open for execution, but the transaction is simulated via the ABAP command "call transaction". This means that ABAP methods can be called from the mobile S10 application, which perform the input of data with this.
You can find a practical example here: Change SAP data
SE38 - ABAP Editor
The ABAP Editor is a source code editing tool designed specifically for ABAP coding, and is one of the main components of the ABAP Workbench. You use the ABAP Editor to write and edit ABAP programs, class methods, function modules, screen flow logic, type groups, and logical databases.

In the meantime, however, other tools can be used for editing source code, e.g. Eclipse or Visual Studio Code.

You can also run useful programs here, especially for transferring local data to the SAP MIME repository and vice versa the report BSP_UPDATE_MIMEREPOS is useful.
Details can be found in the documentation under "Development environment".
SE80 - Object Navigator
A number of different development objects can be edited with the SE80. In particular, access to the MIME repository, in which the MIME files of an S10 application are stored, is also found here. This includes all files that are associated with an HTML application: HTML views, JavaScript files, images and so on.

The transactions offer a number of options such as direct editing and import/export of files, version management, etc.
STMS - Transport Management System
To install the S10 framework, an SAP transport request must be imported that contains the required components. The individual components are described in more detail here: Installation

Later, the transport system can be used to transfer developed S10 applications from a test system to a product system. Since all S10 applications communicate via a common service, only the respective ABAP programs and associated HTML views need to be transferred for further applications after setup, but no new services need to be set up.
SICF - HTTP service tree maintenance
The Internet Communication Framework (ICF) is a programming interface (API) based on interfaces and classes for the communication of ABAP programs with the Internet. The ICF supports the Internet protocols HTTP, HTTPS and SMTP. The actual communication of the SAP Netweaver Application Server with the Internet takes place via its Internet Communication Manager (ICM). This in turn communicates with an AS ABAP work process whose task handler controls the ICF.

In addition to providing OData services, the S10 framework also uses a node in the SICF (s10) to communicate with the front end (in this case, an HTML application). It also provides another service (s10dynamictile) that can be specified in dynamic Fiori tiles to display data on them. However, only these two services are needed, which are then shared by all S10 applications.
/IWFND/MAINT_SERVICE - Activate and manage OData Services
All OData services available in the system as well as their implementation can be displayed here, and they can also be tested directly there. In S/4HANA systems, meanwhile, CDS views can also be published directly as OData services. However, the S10 framework does not require any additional services or models, but can access tables and (CDS) views directly in ABAP coding and synchronize them with the fields on the user interface.
SM59 - RFC Destinations (Display & Maintenance)
RFC connections, in particular the HTTP(S) connections to the ABAP system required for the S10 framework, can be configured here. When using SAP GUI for HTML, Fiori applications and other web-based services are usually already set up in such a way that S10 applications can also be used without modifications.
PFCG - Roll maintenance
In S10 applications, a role is specified in the license that must be assigned to the respective users, by default this is the role s10demo_role. Further permissions should then be assigned and checked depending on the specific S10 application.
Details can be found in the chapter "Security and authorizations" .
SU01 - User maintenance
Use this transaction to assign the user role defined in the license to the users of an S10 application.
SU21 - Maintaining the authorization objects
With the help of transaction SU21 the authorization objects are defined

In S10 applications, no authorizations (except for transaction /S10/MAIN) are checked unless explicitly provided for by the programmer in the code. However, you can define your own checks or use standard authorization objects, for example, when accessing transactions or tables. If you want to map one or part of a standard SAP transaction as a mobile application, you can also record the authorizations required for this in an authorization trace and have the SAP system generate a corresponding user role.
SU53 - Evaluation of the authorization check
This can be used to display performed and, in particular, failed authorization checks. You can directly display details as well as description of the corresponding authorization objects and, if necessary, transfer them to a user role.
SMICM - ICM Monitor
This transaction allows you to monitor and administer the Internet Communication Manager, which receives or sends requests from or to the Internet (in the server role, for example, the incoming HTTP requests), including traces, display of parameters, statistics, caches, sent and received requests, and so on.
SLG1 - Application log: Show logs
The Application Log is a framework from SAP to display a log locally during the runtime of a program or to store it permanently on the database. S10 applications can use this to log information, warnings and errors there.

Details are given in the chapter "s10applicationlog()" .
ST22 - ABAP Runtime Errors
It happens occasionally during the development of a program that a program terminates with a runtime error/shortdump, mostly due to programming errors in the coding. The system prepares a log on its own, which usually helps a lot with error analysis. The runtime error logs are displayed via transaction ST22.
STATS - Performance Monitor
In order to be able to measure and evaluate the performance of an ABAP system and its components, the system generates so-called ABAP statistics records. These provide information about the load of actions generated in the system and how many resources are consumed by them.

In relation to an S10 application, the response and runtimes of both the called ABAP programs and the access to HTML resources can be analyzed here.
ST01 - System-Trace
Usually, application log and the debugger should already be helpful for analyzing problems. However, it may be useful to use a system trace to find and analyze problems. The system trace can be enabled individually for a number of different components, e.g. authorization traces, HTTP calls, database accesses and so on.
LPD_CUST - Launchpad-Customizing
With the S10 framework, created applications can also be made available as a tile on the Fiori Launchpad. On the one hand, this means that the corresponding application can be launched from there embedded in the Launchpad. On the other hand, the information displayed on the tile can also be updated dynamically.

The necessary steps for this are described in more detail in the chapter "Fiori Launchpad Integration".